White paper: Regulatory models

The MaaS Alliance is glad to share with its community a new white paper on Regulatory Models produced by the MaaS Alliance Governance and Business Models (G&B) working group,

Mobility as a Service (‘MaaS’) provides a new approach to travel as an all-inclusive experience, providing customers with a seamless mechanism for planning, booking, paying for, and being supported during and after, travel across a broad range of mobility options.

Establishment and operation of a MaaS scheme is subject to a wide array of regulations, ranging from transport and retail legislation through payments, banking, data protection, employment, and competition frameworks. There are also significant variations in these regulations across regions, countries, and even at a local / city level.

This document seeks to set out the breadth of regulation that applies to the establishment and operation of MaaS schemes, good practice regulation (insofar as it supports MaaS), areas for improvement, and where convergence is required. Its aim is to:

  • Provide an evidence base which businesses, government and regulators, can use to inform discussions on the future evolution of regulatory frameworks; and,
  • Provide a knowledge base for those looking to establish and operate schemes


The document is not intended to present a complete picture of all relevant regulations and readers should recognise that it has been drafted at a point in time and will require updates as regulations change. While the majority of examples in this document refer to European examples (both within and outside the EU) the principles apply globally.

You can download the full paper here.